53 thoughts on “Teacher Appreciation Day

  1. K-12? No. College? Very much yes.

    I’m not really sure why the difference was so stark. I think a lot of it was just that college was a much better fit. In high school I couldn’t fall asleep before 2am and had to be up at 6. In college some classes would meet once a week from 5-8:30pm. And 5-8:30pm is me at my cognitive peak for the day.

  2. Much like bosses, teachers make an impact, sometimes that is good and sometimes it is bad. I don’t have that one person I can look back to and see them as the inspiration. I am answering this more along the lines of most memorable:
    1. 2nd Grade – Mrs. Dinkens fostered my love for reading by shifting from being read to to reading on my own. Sr. Donatis started my fear of nuns as she made you hold out your hand and then whacked it with a ruler if she didn’t think you didn’t meet her criteria.
    2. 5th Grade – Sr. Florentine instilled the awareness that other people judge you by your appearance and the importance of appropriate attire (neat, clean, and groomed). If she felt your uniform was too wrinkled, she sent you to the convent to iron it and gave you a detention. Fear of nuns continued. But to this day, I never leave the house with wrinkled clothing.
    3. 6th Grade – Mrs. Club showed me that some teachers are more concerned about minimizing their effort than they are in student learning. She also taught me to avoid punishment by appearing to continue to work on an assignment, even though I had finished (take the full amount of time allotted before turning it in.) She started my understanding of learning about the unwritten rules in school/work place and following them.
    4. 7th Grade – Mrs. Foster’s inability to control the classroom taught me to stand up to the bully and that my mom would back me for doing so.
    5. 9th Grade – Mrs. Epstein, English teacher, recognized I had 2 years of abysmal English teachers and worked with me to get me caught up and above grade level, all without making me feel stupid or that it was my fault. My foundation of writing came from her.
    6. 10th Grade – Biology teacher (name escapes me) showed us that you can understand both what your religion believes and what secular science believes and they can co-exist.
    7. 12th Grade – Sr. Mary Margaret and Sr. Ann showed me (1) that nuns are people too and there is no reason to fear them and (2) that girls can be good at math and science and not have to hide it.
    8. 12th Grade – Priest (religion teacher – name is blocked) made it clear not all priests are moral and questioning their words and actions is reasonable.

  3. I had a negative experience with the teacher who taught physics and chemistry. She was a very smart woman but had family issues (child with Down’s syndrome) which impacted her teaching. I was in a small school so we didn’t have the benefit of many different teachers like a larger school did.
    My kids do fine with most teachers but some they actively try to avoid a repeat of.

  4. I was in a G&T (not gin & tonic) program grades 3-6, so I was only in my “real” classrooms 2-3 days/week most weeks. The rest was on field trips, doing science experiments, watching movies about everything: history, art, opera, the space program, etc. I don’t remember any specific teachers.

    I do remember in 5th grade Mr Warner commandeered a TV so we could watch the World Series games, since they were all daytime events then.

    7th Grade: Jodi Borland, social studies/English all wrapped together, believed in me, understood my intransigence in fall semester was me rebelling. She let it result in 2 F’s (separate grades for each) but then sat me down and told me she knew what I was doing, it really wouldn’t work, and I better shape up in the spring. Which I did.

    10th grade: Matt McGhee, Spanish 3. Brought materials promoting study abroad to Central America, living with a host family. $500 cost for the 6mo experience. My mom & step-dad went along with it, gave me permission, and I funded it from savings I had from working. Life shaping.

  5. I also don’t have that one teacher that stands out, but here a few that I learned nuggets of information on:
    2nd grade – she was from Minnesota and incorporated a lot of Minnesota and Scandinavia into her lesson plans. Years later when I moved here I felt it was fate. Oddly enough, 2nd grade it when I had my name on the board on a weekly basis, and was always getting in trouble.
    3rd grade – she is my all-time favorite. She bribed the class to read, do math problems, etc. so we’d get movies on Friday. We also had a camping experience in the school courtyard on a Friday night, and her focus was Hawaii all year long. Oh, she also had a modem on her computer and we would type messages to class her husband taught in another district (mind blown in 1987)
    4th grade – I learned some teachers are just mean
    5th grade – I learned that losing a spouse is devastating and the support of the school was amazing
    7th grade – I had an english teacher who was fun, engaging, and learned a lot. Years later I learned that he inspired a friend of mine (who was bullied for being fat, loved madonna, and, as it turns out, gay) and mentored him, and to this day I think he saved my friend.
    7th grade – I had a math teacher who created his own pre-algebra book because he felt what was available wasn’t good enough. I learned from him that you can bend the rules, and if something isn’t working, take initiative to change it.
    High School teachers are a bit of blur, but the ceramics teacher was a big stoner, but he got through to the artsy stoner kids. Several of them are successful artists today.

  6. My 9th grade French teacher. He was a black guy in a school with very few black teachers (and about 30% black students). More than that, he was a YOUNG black guy. So young that he regularly got asked to show a hall pass. He dressed in total funk fashion – high waisted bell bottoms, platform shoes, the brimmed hat with a little feather. And not only could he speak French far better than the 8th grade teacher, but he could recite verses in medieval Occitan and middle English. And he taught us about the troubadeurs from Languedoc and all kinds of other cool stuff. I will never forgethim

  7. That’s quite a list AustinMom!

    Mr. Evans – 5th & 6th grade – taught me about long complicated words.
    Mr. Stern – 7th grade – Taught me all the history I’d ever learn at school. (He played the piano as accompaniment to black and white movies. He introduced me to Charlie Chaplin.) HS AP History teacher, Mr. Orr, taught me that teachers can be awful but if you read the text you’ll be fine.
    Mr. Elliot taught me one can hold a job as a journalist while teaching English. He used to type articles during our tests. The typing drove me crazy.
    Mr. O’Neill – taught me it was OK to be really smart and show it and to love mythology.
    Mr. Enright – Biology – taught me that skating by was not good enough. (I was a 9th grader in a 10th grade Bio class and he wouldn’t let me hide.) He and Mr. Austin (a coach I had) encouraged me to not skate by and to take AP classes, not take a gap year and apply to the Ivy League.
    Mrs. O-G and a male math teacher (I can’t remember the name, started with a B) taught me to love math.

    Looking back – I had a lot of male teachers!

    In law school I had an old school style professor (Prof. Macleod) that taught civil procedure using the Socratic method. He scared the $@# out of me, but it taught me to always be prepared. He was a lovely, kind man (once you stopped being scared of him).

  8. Oooooh, yes!

    4th Grade, name forgotten: made me feel very smart and appreciated.

    5th Grade, Mrs. Ratliff: inspired my never-ending hatred of social studies, and made me feel stupid because my handwriting was so bad.

    7th Grade English, Ms. P-something (I’ll remember as soon as I submit): first time I realized I could be smarter than a teacher.

    HS: Mr. Grabner (chem/advanced chem) and Ms. Gracie (English/journalism): The reasons I was almost a chemistry major or journalist. Just awesome on all fronts. Mr. Grabner looked like a combination of Dracula and Spock and loved to act out all of the principles he was teaching — he was visually incredibly intimidating, but he thought I was wicked smart and pushed me into advanced chem and the AP test (which I hadn’t even heard of back in the day). He died while I was in college, and it was a huge shock. Not to mention a loss to all the future kids who should have had his class.

    Ms. Gracie should have been a 1950s newspaper editor — she drank, smoked like a chimney, swore, and was gruff as anything. Also funny as hell and completely ruthless about things I screwed up — and still told me and everyone else that I was one of the two smartest kids she’d ever taught.* She was proud and pointedly not surprised when I told her I was going to law school.

    *Not exaggerating there. In a classic Smalltimore story, some 25-30 years later, we hired a guy who had been best friends with Mrs. Gracie’s kid and who was still in regular contact with them both, even though they’d moved cross-country. He mentioned my name, and Ms. Gracie said to tell me hi, and told him I was one of the two smartest kids she’d ever taught. How can you not love a teacher like that?

  9. Mme Blankenship who taught me French in my small Texas town. She instilled in me enough grasp of the French language to make me think I could handle moving to France. I now blame her for everything that has gone wrong in my life for the past 2 years.

  10. I had an amazing teacher for 1st grade. I had transferred in from the Catholic school (note to Austin, my previous 1st grade teacher was a nun and whacked the Down syndrome kid in our class with a ruler. I told my parents about it and that was when they switched me over) in October and she was amazingly welcoming and fostered such a friendly environment that I made several friends right away and stayed friends with them through elementary school (middle school was ROUGH). Plus she also found stuff for me to read when I made it through all of the 1st grade reading in November. She had all of us go to “space” in turns (big cardboard box decorated like the space shuttle with tinfoil etc.) and we got to wear astronaut suits (PJs) that day – I still remember being so excited!

    My 4th grade teacher was also good. The rest of elementary school was meh, except for the later elementary music teacher, who gave me the starring role in the 4th-5th grade play. :D

    Middle school was terrible – that’s when I learned that teachers are often not that smart and those same teachers don’t take kindly to when the kids are smarter than they are! One memorable incident was when my mom got a local college English professor to write a letter to my teachers explaining to them why their grammar lesson was wrong. ;)

    In HS I had a lot of good English teachers, but my math and science teachers were mostly turkeys. I think that if I had had better math teachers, my attitude toward math in college would have been way better and I might have taken a math class!

    College had SO MANY good professors and it was amazing to be surrounded by people who were passionate about learning.

  11. when I learned that teachers are often not that smart

    My favorite story was my middle school history teacher who was terrible. At one point everyone failed the test. Everyone but me. So she said in a huff to the class, “Rhett got an A so it’s not like I didn’t teach you all the material.” Gee thanks…

  12. I must give credit to DS’s English teachers, his essays have improved dramatically through high school. Each one of the teachers are characters in and of themselves. The current one wears a bow tie – reminds me of Colonel Sanders.

  13. I took mathematical logic in college from this Russian guy who was hard to understand and evidently did not fathom the idea that he could write on the blackboard. So he just read out all these long complicated proofs and I frantically wrote. I learned early on that I could go to his office hours and he would serve tea and make sure I had the proofs written down correctly. He was so nice. I loved the subject (still do) and got an A even though it was actually a grad math course and I was an undergrad.
    Later, when I was in grad school, I discovered he is really famous for his mathematical work. I mean really famous. He was behind the concept of NP-completeness, one of the key ideas of theoretical computer science. His name is on it (the Cook-Levin theorem). I had no idea. He never came off like a big shot scholar. I am really glad I had the privilege of learning mathematical logic from him

  14. YES!

    I went to public school in NYC in the 70s and my classes were large. This is when the city was bankrupt and there was so little money for teachers or even paper. I remember that used to run our of handouts at a certain point each month because there was no more paper available when it ran out. I still have the class photos and there were 34-36 of us in each class with no aides. I had so many great teachers in elementary school even with those large classes. but my 4th grade teacher was memorable. I loved her and she used to take us for outings in small groups on the weekends. Six kids at a time and she would take us to parks, walking along the river and some other fun places. Sometimes her kids (teens) came too. My 9th grade math teacher also invited groups of students to her home on Saturdays. My 11th grade pre calc teacher used to meet kids on the weekends in Washington Square Park and he would teach the students to juggle. He went to NYU before he became a teacher and he used to juggle to make extra money. It seems very odd now that our parents would let us spend time with teachers on the weekends, but it was not so unusual BITD.

    I had a couple of memorable teachers in HS even though I attended one of the best public high schools in the country. Several of my English and Social Studies teachers were awesome. The best, but most of my math and science teachers were just ok. The reason that I had to take calculus again in college was that my calculus teacher looked at the floor and barely spoke to us.

  15. J-M, was her real name Blankenship? That was the name of one of the funniest characters on Mad Men;Ida Blankenship.

  16. J-M, LOL. ;-)

    “Middle school was terrible – that’s when I learned that teachers are often not that smart and those same teachers don’t take kindly to when the kids are smarter than they are! One memorable incident was when my mom got a local college English professor to write a letter to my teachers explaining to them why their grammar lesson was wrong. ;)

    One memorable incident was when my mom WAS the college English professor lecturing Mrs. P-whatever why her grammar lesson was wrong. ;-)

    Actually, in terms of teachers, I have to give the highest possible marks to Ms. Jaudon, who was DD’s second grade teacher. That was sort of the height of DD’s anxiety and acting out about school and telling us she was a bad kid because of the way her teacher had treated her in first grade and being so burned about school that she’d throw a 45-minute tantrum about 15 minutes of homework. So we made the switch to the public school, and they were smart enough to put her in Ms. Jaudon’s class (who had two ADHD boys of her own). It took about a month to get DD to realize that she didn’t have to be scared of school any more, but after that she just flourished — total 180. She truly saved my kid.

  17. Lauren – Yes, her actual name was Blankenship. I looked her up and called her in 2019 to thank her for giving me the courage to make such a move. I haven’t subsequently called her to tell her it all went to hell in a handbasket.

  18. DD#1 has had several outstanding teachers and a few duds. On the outstanding side, I don’t know if she will see it this way, but 1st and 2nd grade teachers gave her a lot of leeway to learn at her own (fast) pace and kept putting things out in front of her to keep her challenged. Fifth grade teacher figured out some of her strengths, allowed more limited learning at her own pace, but pointed her to academic competitions that preparing for kept her from getting bored. One of the middle school math teachers advocated to let her move to online math in the 8th grade (decision made at the end of 7th). Unfortunately, that teacher moved, but the permissions had been granted and DD#1 rolled with it.

  19. JM – LOL !
    My DD’s French teacher caught some kids using Google Translate because there were words used that she hadn’t taught them. The goings on in the French class are interesting. Too many high maintenance girls squared off against an equally Ooh la la French teacher.

  20. J-M – But if you hadn’t had the courage, you would not have gone and would have always wondered.

  21. Most of my memories of school are of not doing much. I had some very nice teachers, but they didn’t want to be bothered so I did a lot of errand-running, taking things to/from the office, filing papers. In hindsight, they obviously talked about it amongst each other because once I started filing for one most of the rest asked too. Then one day after the standard dinner conversation of “what did you learn today?”, “nothing”, my dad asked exasperated you to explain what I did all day that I didn’t learn anything and I explained that I do the filing, and that was the end of that. After that, when they would go to the teachers lounge during class for what felt like very long times, a couple of teachers would make me drag my desk to the hall so I wouldn’t talk and distract people when I finished my work.

    5th grade – Mrs Brady had us use maps and AAA stuff to plot a driving route across Canada or Mexico, identifying where we would stop for the night and what we would see on the way. She also had the SchoolName Bowl, which was a jeopardy-like contest. Like Rhett, I was one of the only elementary school kids who read the paper, so I broke all the school points records set in the previous year by my brother, who also read the papers. It culminated in the very exciting 5th graders vs 6th graders championship in the auditorium, where my brother’s 6th grade team beat us.

    11th-12th grade math – Brother Bernardine. He didn’t use textbooks – just pulled what he though was important and wrote it on the board. He’s the first teacher I ever had that didn’t give me a pass and really expected me to work hard. I can remember complaining that one problem he gave me took me three hours to solve, and he replied that that was how I would keep my sanity when I was imprisoned – by scratching calculus problems into my cell wall. (The true value of the calculus track!) I really loved that man, and continued to write to him until his death 17 years later.

    Grad school I had a couple of seminars with only 3-5 students and really learned a lot in those discussions. I’m not sure if it was the subject matter or the teacher, though.

  22. “K-12? No. College? Very much yes.”

    Ditto. I had a lot of good to very good teachers K-12, but none that were IME really inspirational.

    My device physics prof, OTOH, inspired a bunch of kids to focus on device physics, even though there was absolutely no chance of working in that field here. He even influenced some physics majors to get their MSEE in device physics.

  23. “Looking back – I had a lot of male teachers!”

    I had very few. Before 7th grade, the only male teachers I had were for music and PE.

    OTOH, DS only had 3 years without at least one male teacher for a core subject. His K teacher was male.

  24. One of my MS profs was really good. He was an IEEE fellow, widely recognized as the leader in his field, but every time he saw me outside of class, including at a few technical conferences, he always said hi, and would chat if he wasn’t busy.

  25. My children had some very inspiring teachers. One of them in high school really made my youngest realize he was a smart and capable kid. I recall a few of mine fondly and a few not so fondly, but I don’t recall any without whom my life would be very different.

  26. I had a lot of male teachers in grades 7 -12. In my junior and senior years of HS, all of my teachers were men except for my French teacher. DD has all male teachers this year except for AP Bio.

    The principal of her HS is currently a woman. The district has a very difficult time retaining administrators so she had 4 different principals in elementary school, 3 in middle school and 2 different people in HS. The administrators in her elementary school were all women, the middle school – a mix of men and women, but the HS was always all male administrators until this new hire.

    I knew that her junior year was going to be challenging, but I never imagined that she would have to deal with a pandemic in junior year. It is very hard to learn all fo this material in this environment. She misses her friends and most are in the other cohort so now she is even dealing with social issues that remind me of middle school. She always has a headache and is exhausted from looking at screens for 18 hours a day.

  27. Lauren, I’m sorry she’s having to deal with all of this.

    DD is finally going back to school on Tuesday. They have not had any in person classes since last March. All her friends will be in the other cohort as well, but at least she’ll get out of the house.

  28. Lauren, I am so sorry your DD has to deal with all of this. And it is so hard to watch our kids struggle. Hugs.

  29. Lauren, I agree with HFN. Watching your kid struggle is the worst. I’m sending lots of good thoughts her (and your) way.

  30. Lauren, I’m sorry to hear about the middle school struggles reoccurring in high school. It has to be difficult for the whole family. I really feel for the older high school students. They are kind of forgotten. I was watching a school board meeting and some high school teachers were saying that they feel they are teaching into the void. Little participation, few attending on a regular basis, lack of creativity in their work. And this is a high performing school.

    I really hate hearing about how resilient kids are. I think a small portion are thriving, and those are what people latch on to as proof. Yesterday was a bad day for DD2. I learned she hasn’t been understanding division and is afraid to ask for help online, and for the last three weeks hasn’t done a lick of math work. I took today off to help her. First semester grades come out today, I don’t have any expectations.

  31. I’m sorry to hear about the struggles your kids are facing, Lauren and LT and everyone else, for that matter. That “kids are resilient” cliché needs to get put back in the closet for several years.

  32. Lauren – sorry to hear that.
    My kids are going to school but with the Covid spike post Thanksgiving they were remote for most of Dec/Jan. It did feel like they were stuck in the house.
    The schools tried to take the stress off by having two days so far be late starts but IMO, these types of schedule changes are worse.
    I am hopeful with our case numbers coming down they are able to attend in person the rest of the year. The schools themselves have gotten good at operating through the pandemic.

  33. I was annoyed at DD’s teachers because in the post Thanksgiving/early December time frame when there were several cases of students with Covid exposure at their school, the teachers got together for a celebration at one of their homes. Well, some of them came down with Covid and one older teacher is still out. One is pregnant and going on maternity leave shortly. Things are not running smooth right now. There is a sub but that’s not going great.

  34. My little (step)granddaughter is turning 1 next month. Gift ideas? She has, as far as I can tell, virtually every toy in the universe. And every board book in the universe. I really wonder if more “stuff” is the best option, given that their house isn’t that big and the kid has everything. But when she’s older, will she look back at her cherished toys from her maternal grandparents, and look at (e.g.) the $500 check for her college fund from her paternal grandparents and think, Man, Grandpa and Grandma Stepmom really suck?

    Anyway, what did your one-year-old like?

  35. I will mention that DH is finally finishing up a rocking horse that he’s making her in his woodworking shop, and he nicely refurbished a child’s chair that had been in my family for at least 70 (maybe 80) years, so she’ll have a few things she can say Grandpa made for her.

  36. My one year olds really enjoyed mylar balloons from the dollar store, especially the ones with the shiny back, and getting pulled around in the laundry basket like a train car.

  37. RMS, I can not believe it has already been a year! Once she can stand/walk, she might like to push a little stroller. Also, some of the toys from Melissa and Doug are great for 12-14 months. If they have access to outside, the Little Tikes Cozy Coupe is fun. She is going to start moving a lot now so even some of the little things that she can ride in her home are fun. They are all small and the kids sit on them and push with their feet. Little Tikes, Fisher Price, Playskool are manufacturers for this type of thing that she can ride in the house. The toys are not large so hopefully it will be ok even in a small space.

    THANKS to everyone for your comments. I hope it will get better once it gets a little warmer and she can see her friends outside. Winter is really here now so the kids haven’t been meeting except for two days of school.

  38. Rocky – she’s one. She won’t remember anything you give her now (or at age 2 or 3 or even 4). The college fund she’ll come to appreciate later.

  39. My one year olds really liked an empty cardboard box and perhaps some crumpled tissue paper to put in it. But they weren’t gifted.

    I think gifts for one and two year old are really for the parents, many of whom are overwhelmed by toys at that point. I’m thinking college fund. When she’s 4 or 5, you can start working of most favored grandparents status, with gifts she wants that her parents think are frivolous.

  40. RMS, if her parents raise her to be a totebagger, she will very much appreciate the college fund.

  41. I would have loved if the grandparents gave money. We didn’t need any more toys. But, if you feel like getting something….cozy coupe. We had two. One for indoor and one for outdoor. Those things can really roll on hardwood floors! Also, water table, sandbox, little outdoor climber. My parents gave us a one of those plastic clubhouse things and they kids played for hours in those.

    Also, I can’t believe she is turning one!

  42. RMS – if there is a smallish handmade toys that will fit in a small box that can serve as a keepsake. One thing I learnt from my moves, is that if it was small it could go with me. Culturally jewelry is a good keepsake gift. My DD likes the name or alphabet of name pendants. I wouldn’t try to get her more toys or clothes since she has plenty. College fund contributions definitely.
    We are at the point, where I am looking at the college fund !

  43. Rocky – does she have any of the Busy Books by Rebecca Finn? They are British, I think, and our kids all LOVED them.

  44. Money is great and I bet that Rocky and her DH will set aside a gift for her future, but I think it is fun for grandparents to buy “stuff” and spoil their grandchildren if they can afford it. In this case, they can afford it and they rarely get to see their grandchild so there might be some small pleasure in being able to buy some things even if she won’t remember in 17 years.

  45. If you do go the route of spoiling with toys and clothes, do understand that it might get donated or trashed. We received so much love in the way of gifts, but live in a small house with limited storage, and I have anxiety over clutter. Many things were never worn or played with and found good homes via donation, but I did get asked many times how is DD liking toy A, or “where is the such and such we got, we want to see her play with it?”.

  46. do understand that it might get donated or trashed.

    Oh, for real. She’s teething and between her and the dog, I can see that everything in the house has been chewed on. :-)

    I totally believe in toys that are either indestructible, or are at least fun to chew.

  47. “I really hate hearing about how resilient kids are. I think a small portion are thriving, and those are what people latch on to as proof. ”

    Yes. DS is doing fine….for a pandemic. He is self-motivated, old enough to be self-sufficient, and not bothered by learning through the screen. But it’s not fantastic. It’s good enough for the situation. I believe it’s better than how our school plans to structure hybrid if it ever happens. But “thriving” is not the word for it. He even says that he is learning what he is supposed to learn and no more. When he was in class, in his study hall/free work time, once he completed his assignments, he’d read, do Khan Academy, work on Scratch projects with friends, do extra Science lab stuff with friends, talk to the teacher about topics, etc. Now…he plays video games (often with friends). And I don’t have time or energy to supplement. We are all doing what we can.

    “Rocky – she’s one. She won’t remember anything you give her now (or at age 2 or 3 or even 4). The college fund she’ll come to appreciate later.”

    I agree. Or maybe a collectable that you can keep going like the First Lady Coins. They are worth a decent amount of money (gold), don’t take up much space, but are a “thing”. IDK. Just an example. If you really feel like you should give a toy, I like the Cozy Coupe suggestion. But don’t think that anything you give a one year old will be treasured for a lifetime!

  48. “where is the such and such we got, we want to see her play with it?”.

    We have many pictures of the kids holding a toy or wearing a shirt to send to the relatives and then said toy or shirt is never touched again. DH insists on these pictures because his family asks him those questions.

  49. OT – I have two memorable teachers in a good way. My 1st grade teacher who made a point of keeping me engaged even though I was ahead of the other kids (most of the other elementary teachers ignored me as long as I wasn’t causing trouble). And my HS art teacher who was just one of those teachers who cared about all the kids & was a real support for many. I have zero art talent, but he encouraged me while also really nurturing the talent of the kids who had a gift. There are multiple working FT artists in my HS class, and I really think that teacher was one of the reasons.

    I have other teachers that I hated – even in Kindy I called my teacher Mrs. Worm. I think the feeling was mutual from what my parents have said. She did not care for the bored, precocious, smart-aleck kid. My 6th grade teacher & I were like oil and water too. I still roll my eyes thinking of her.

    DS has had a few really great teachers, one really terrible one, and a lot of teachers that were not that memorable long-term.

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